Blood dopingThe main side effects of blood doping include:
- the formation of blood clots,
- overload of the circulatory system,
- kidney damage from allergic reactions and
- transmission of infectious diseases like HIV.
Further side effects may be:
- rash, fever and shock due to an allergic reaction,
- metabolic shock,
- acute hemolytic reactions with kidney damage if incorrectly typed blood is used,
- delayed transfusion reactions resulting in fever and jaundice (potentially life-threatening) and
- transmission of infectious diseases (viral hepatitis and AIDS).
Even in standard hospital conditions, the risk of infections with such pathogens as HIV and hepatitis, as well as transfusion reactions require a detailed carefully performed procedure. The unsupervised practice of transfusing blood products could increase those risks. In addition, raising one’s hematocrit beyond physiologically normal levels leads to an increase in blood viscosity, thrombogenic potential and myocardial infarction risk.
Artificial oxygen carriersThe side effects of artificial oxygen carriers vary significantly and they include:
- reduced platelet counts,
- gastrointestinal irritability,
- impaired oxygen delivery to tissues,
- kidney damage and
- iron overload.
Particularly, high peripheral and pulmonary pressures under artificial oxygen carriers’ administration may be present. When oxygen concentration in the tissue is high, a hyperoxic arteriolar reflex might reduce the number and diameter of functional capillaries to avoid oxidative tissue damage, thus increasing vascular resistance.
Furthermore, hemoglobin based oxygen carriers reduce the nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation in arterioles and capillaries. Other adverse effects are gastrointestinal manifestations with increased tone of the intestinal sphincters, marked flatulent activity and meteorism. Renal toxicity, induced by filtration of hemoglobin monomers and consecutive tubulus necrosis, represents a potentially fatal adverse reaction of these substances. Blood products derived from hemoglobin of human or bovine origin might contain infective agents such as viruses or induce immunogenic effects in the recipient.
Adverse effects associated with the use of perfluorocarbons include flu-like symptoms with fever and myalgias. Perfluorocarbons have also been linked to hepatic or spleenal engorgement with consecutive organ failure and impairment of immune defense mechanisms.
Further side effects can be:
- allergic reactions may occur,
- increase in body temperature above 40°C,
- fever and cold,
- kidney, liver and lung toxicity (the lesions are probably irreversible in most cases),
- blood infections if the preparations are bacteriological impure,
- severe conditions such as embolism and thromboses (thrombocytopenia),
- risk of AIDS virus transmission if needles are shared,
- formation of gas bubbles once injected into the blood vessels.